Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 11th World Congress on Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders Auckland, New Zealand.

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Day 2 :

  • Thyroid Disorders | Advancements in Treatment & Prevention | Thyroid Cancer | Endocrinology & Diabetes
Location: Wink @ Naumi Hotel Auckland Airport
Speaker

Chair

Christo John Frederick Muller

Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, South Africa

Speaker
Biography:

His expertise in public health and community nutrition and teach human nutrition at higher educational institute in Arsi University, college of health sciences, department of public health.

Abstract:

The  Ethiopian  regions  have  a  relatively  higher  prevalence  of  under-nutrition  are  found  in  the lowlands of the country, with the exception of the highlands of Tigiray, where under-nutrition is also  prevalent.  A  community  based  comparative  cross-sectional  study  design  was  conducted from  January  27-  March  7,  2014.  Sample  size  was  determined  by  two  population  estimation formula. The total calculated sample size was 456. A stratified sampling technique was used to stratify  the  study  area  to  highland  and  lowland.  Study  participants  were  selected  by  simple random  sampling  technique.  Data  were  collected  using  anthropometric  measurements  and structured  questionnaire.  The  raw  data  were  entered  and  analyzed  using  SPSS  version  20.0. Multivariable  Logistic  regression  was  done  to  determine  the  association  between  explanatory variable  with  Chronic  Energy Deficiency (CED) using Body Mass Index  (BMI),  by  computing odds ratio at 95% confidence level. A P – value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of CED of lactating mothers from lowland and highland was 17.5% and 24.6% respectively: age, husband occupation, taking vitamin A immediately after delivery or within the first eight weeks after delivery and consumption of extra food during lactation time were factors associated with chronic energy deficiency for lowland lactating women whereas parity, number of meals per day and household consumption of iodized salt were factors associated with CED for  highland  lactating  women.  CED  in  both  comparative  studies  was  a  serious  public  health problem. As it is known food security does not mean nutritionally secured, Therefore, the need to develop nutrition intervention such as nutrition security programs to address under-nutrition in the study area is significant, as it was found food secured participants were slightly vulnerable than  food  insecure.  The  dietary  diversity  score  of  the  participants  were  very  low  so  that encourage  the  community  about  nutrition  diversification  is  substantial  for  adequate  nutrient intake

Biography:

Tika Ram Lamichhane is Assistant Professor at Central Department of Physics (CDP), Tribhuvan University (TU), Kathmandu, Nepal. He has expertise in biomedical applications of physics particularly in medical imaging and protein-hormone systems. His current research is based on ultrasonographic, biochemical and computational study of thyroid disorders

 

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Routine assesment of thyroid status basically relies on ultrasonographic (USG) examinations and Thyroid Function Tests (TFT) determining the serum concentrations of FT3, FT4 and TSH. Along with finding the prevalence of hypothyroidism, it is required to explore the biophsical insights in the molecular levels behind such disorders.  Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: USG and TFT measurements of the patients were performed at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), Kathmandu, Nepal. The mutational and overt hypothyroidal impacts on thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) were studied by nanoscale molecular dynamics simulations in a high performance computer at Central Department of Physics, TU, Nepal. Findings: The prevalences of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism are 64.58% and 11.73% of 963 hypothyroid subjects based on TFT results under the study of 4438 subjects. In a total of 140 patients (mean age: 38.94x13.60 years) perfroming both USG and TFT observations, 22.86 % have hypothyroidism (mean TSH: 25.86 mIU/L) with mean size of left and right lobe, 4.92x3.24 mL and 5.66x3.93 mL, respectively finding multinodular goiters, hypoechoic lesions, chronic thyroiditis, benign/malignant nodules, and colloid cysts in some patients. Negative correlation between FT3/ FT4 and TSH verifies the negative feedback mechanism of thyroid cycle. At overt hypothyroidism, THRs become free of T3 or T4 in their binding sites that reduce the gene transcription rate. By the molecular dynamics study of native stateTHRs, the heat capacity of T3 liganded THR-β is 9.76x0.38 kcal/mol/K and that of unliganded THR-β is 9.08x0.34 kcal/mol/K at 310 K. It makes change in heat transfer properties. Conclusion & Significance: In menarche and menopause periods, thyroid size of females is higer than that of males. Females are more vulnerable towards hypothyroidism. The mutated, T3-liganded and unliganded-THRs have the different structuaral and thermophysical properties like interaction energies, heat capacity, heat coduction and normal modes of vibrations. 

Biography:

Sargar R.V is working in RUDN-University, Moscow, Russia. His wide range of publications in various national and international journals.
 

Abstract:

Purpose of study: To study the diagnostic capabilities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for the evaluation of intrathyroid hormone formation in diseases of the thyroid gland.
 
Material and Methods: Total number of patients were 236 women with thyroid disease, which caused disorders of the thyroid gland function. The control group consisted of individuals of 2 groups; first group who denied contact with iodine; 2) had contact with iodine. All patients were examined in accordance with the standards of care to conduct the evaluation of thyroid CT density in HU.
 
Results:  In primary hypothyroidism (= 87), hyperthyroidism (№ = 35), carriers of antibody (№ = 28) thyroid HU density was significantly (p <0.05) reduced compared with the control group and was respectively (M ± m) 53 ± 2; 85 ą 9; 84 ± 6 units. With iodine induced hyperthyroidism ( = 8) and hypothyroidism (RL = 11), thyroid density in HU was significantly increased to 182 ± 7 and 181 ± 6 units compared to control group «1» »(CH = 36). In the control group "2" (CHO = 31) who consumed iodized sodium chloride, the thyroid density in HU was significantly increased to 162 ± 7 vs. 104 ± 8 in the control group «1) ». It should be emphasized that the thyroid density in HU, determined at CT, is directly proportional to the concentration of intra thyroid stable iodine. In turn, 80% of the element iodine is in the phenyl ring of thyroid hormones. Consequently, the thyroid density index in HU reflects the level of hormone formation and the reserves of iodinated thyroid hormones directly into the thyroid gland. In this regard, it should be noted that the thyroid gland is the only endocrine organ that, after the synthesis of hormones lasting 50 days, stores them in the thyroid structure (colloid of thyroglobulin) and secretes thyroid hormones into the blood at the request of the body. Based on the literature data and the results of our own research, for all regions of Russia we have proposed the following fluctuations in thyroid density in HU, reflecting the euthyroid status and favorable future of the thyroid function: from 85 to 140 units.  In those cases when there is an iodine- induced dysfunction of thyroid function, the thyroid density index in HU is increased above 140. If the synthesis of thyroid hormones (primary hypothyroidism) or synthesis is impossible, but pathological secretion with a lack of fixation in thyroid globulin collagen (diffuse toxic goiter with thyrotoxicosis), the thyroid density in HU decreases less than 85 units. It is important to note that in the determination of TSH in the blood, fasting, the use of a number of drugs, stress, sleep deprivation, severe illnesses of the subject can lead to errors in determining the concentration of TSH and thyroid hormones (due to so-called non thyroidal factors) in the direction of their change as in hypothyroidism with the presence of euthyroidism in fact. In this case, normal thyroid density in HU indicates euthyroidism. Conclusions: One time assessment of thyroid density in HU with CT and blood serum TSH level makes it possible to perform differential diagnosis between iodine induced and true thyroid dysfunction and also to correct for the error in determination of TSH concentration as a result of the influence of non thyroidal factors. Evaluation of thyroid density in HU in CT should be used for screening the risk of thyroid dysfunction and for determining the need for individual and population iodine prophylaxis and monitoring its effectiveness in order to prevent iodine induced transient disorders of thyroid function.